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    副詞much的八中翻譯規范

    一、修飾比較級

    這是much用作副詞時最常見的用法。“much + 比較級”的意思是“更……”“……得多”。如:

    It’s much colder today than it was yesterday. 今天比昨天冷得多。

    It was much worse than I thought. 它比我想像的還要糟得多。

    We will be a much better football team next year. 明年我們將會成為一支更好的足球隊。

     

    二、修飾最高級

    much修飾最高級應置于最高級前的定冠詞之前,而不是之后。“much + the + 最高級”的意思是“最最……”“絕對是最……”。如:

    This is much the most difficult. 這是最最難的。

    That’s much the best plan. 那絕對是最好的計劃。

    Of the three boys Nick is much the cleverest. 這三個男孩中,尼克最最聰明。

     

    三、修飾形容詞的原級

    much修飾形容詞原級的情形主要見于那些由過去分詞轉化來的形容詞。如:

    I was much annoyed. 我很不高興。

    She wasn’t much surprised. 她并不太驚訝。

    注:有個別非分詞轉化來的形容詞有時也可用much修飾,但這種用法很有限,通常只見于good, different等少數幾個形容詞。如:

    I don’t think this battery is much good. 我并不認為這種電池非常好。

    The new school isn’t much different from the old one. 新學校與老學校區別不太大。

     

    四、修飾介詞短語

    much主要用于修飾由like, in, to等少數介詞所構成的介詞短語。如:

    The baby doesn’t look much like you. 這嬰兒長得不大像你。

    They’re very much in love with each other. 他們彼此在熱戀中。

    Much to my surprise, she did it by herself. 讓我極為驚訝的是,這竟然是她自己做的。


    五、修飾副詞too

    much too 為習語,其中的much修飾副詞too;much too可視為too的加強說法,其語氣比單獨用too更強。如:

    He spoke much too fast. 他說話說得太快了。

    This is much too heavy for you to lift. 這東西太重,你拿不起來。

    注意:much too與too much詞序不同,用法也不同。從句法功能上看,much too的用法與too相同,但比too的語氣更強;而too much在用法上則與much相同,但比much 語氣更強。比較:

    He drives much too fast. 他開車開得太快了。

    The shoes are much too small for me. 這鞋子我穿太小了。

    There is too much rain. 雨水太多了。

    You have given me too much. 你已經給我太多了。

     

    六、修飾動詞

    much修飾動詞時,通常只用于否定句或疑問句中,一般不能用于肯定句中(除非前面有 very, too, so 等之類的修飾語)。如:

    正:She doesn’t like him much. (用于否定句,故正確)

    正:She doesn’t much like him. (用于否定句,故正確)

    正:Does she like him much? (用于疑問句,故正確)

    正:Does she much like him? (用于疑問句,故正確)

    正:She likes him very [too, so] much. (其前有修飾語,故正確)

    注意以下誤句:

    誤:She likes him much. / She much likes him. (因為它用于肯定句,且其前沒有修飾語,故不正確)

    但是,不帶修飾語的much有時也能在肯定句中修飾動詞,但這通常只限于admire, affect, appreciate, dislike, enjoy, look forward to, prefer, regret等少數動詞,且much通常只能放在句中,不放在句末。如:

    We much appreciate your invitation. 我們非常感激你的邀請。

    We would much prefer to be given money. 我們還是更喜歡有人給我們錢。

    These factors have much affected the building of nuclear plants. 這些因素極大地影響了核電站的建立。

     

    七、修飾as

    much as 可視為習語,其意為“雖然”,用法與though相似。如:

    Much as I’d like to help, there isn’t a lot I can do. 盡管我愿意幫忙,卻沒有很多事我能做。

    Much as he admired her looks and her manners,he had no wish to marry her. 雖說他很欣賞她的外貌和儀態,他卻無心和她結婚。

     

    八、修飾the same

    much 修飾the same,從表面上是加強了the same的語氣,但實際上是緩和了其語氣,其意為“情況大致相同”“幾乎差不多”“沒什么變化”。如:

    The patient is much the same this morning. 今天早上病人情況幾乎沒什么變化。

    Whichever method you use, the result is much the same. 不論你用哪一種方法,結果都差不多。

    They eat much the same thing for breakfast every day. 他們每天吃的早餐幾乎都一樣。



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